Estonian literature. The roots of Estonian literature lie in the approximately 2,000 year old anonymous and orally transmitted folk poetry, which was not recorded until the 19th century and is now one of the largest collections in the world. Characteristic of this poem are alliteration, parallelism in terms of content, four-part trochee and the lack of end rhyme. On the basis of this folk poetry, F. R. Kreutzwald wrotehis epic Kalevipoeg (1857–61; German »Kalewipoeg«) basedon the example of the Finnish Kalevala, which went down in history as the Estonian nationalepic, although seven eighths of it is Kreutzwald’s artisticcreation.
The first surviving Estonian print is a bilingual (Low German and Estonian) Lutheran catechism from 1535. In the 17th century, an Estonian casual poetry began, which was followed by edifying literature in the 18th century and the entire translation of the Bible (1739).
In the 19th century Kristjan Jaak Peterson (* 1801, † 1822) wrote some poems, but remained completely unknown and was only rediscovered a hundred years later. Around the middle of the 19th century, under the sign of national romanticism, modern Estonian literature emerged with the patriotic poetry and dramas by Lydia Koidula, whose father, Johann Woldemar Jannsen (* 1819, † 1890), was the founder of the first Estonian newspaper (1857). Even before the turn of the century, the symbolist and nature poetry of J. Liiv and the critical realism of the novelist E. Vilde developed.
In 1905 the literary group Noor-Eesti (Young Estonia) was founded around the poet G. Suits and the novelist Friedebert Tuglas (* 1886, † 1971), which sought a renewal of literature and a connection to Western European currents under neo-romantic auspices. At the same time, the Estonian theater experienced an upswing with dramas by Vilde and A. Kitzberg. With the breakthrough of the various avant-garde currents – v. a. the expressionism – close modernity around 1917 the poetry with Marie Under, Johannes Semper (* 1892, † 1970) and H. Visnapuu moved into the foreground.
In the years of the first statehood (1918–40) the novel became the main genre. A. H. Tammsaare drew in his pentalogy »Tõde ja õigus« (1926–33; German »Truth and Law«), which is still considered the main work of Estonian literature, the development of the Estonian people from the last quarter of the 19th century to the 1930s -Years after. In addition, the realistic novels by August Mälk (* 1900, † 1987), the neo-romantic works by A. Gailit and the prose by Tuglas Peet Vallak (* 1893, † 1959) and K. Ristikivi should be emphasized. On the eve of the Second World War, a new generation of poets around Betti Alver tried to Bernhard Kangro (* 1910, † 1994), U. Masing and Heiti Talvik (* 1904, † 1947) to counter the raging totalitarianism in Europe with perfect poetry.
After the Second World War and during the Soviet occupation of the country (until 1991), Estonian literature in exile developed alongside local literature, which partly continued the pre-war tradition (Kangro, Ristikivi, Under), but also through the unhindered confrontation with current modernist currents new forms such as the surrealist poetry by Ilmar Laaban (* 1921, † 2000) produced.
In Soviet Estonia, literature initially had to move within a dogmatic socialist realism, the limits of which authors such as Aadu Hint (* 1910, † 1989), Rudolf Sirge (* 1904, † 1970) and Juhan Smuul (* 1922, † 1971) tried to explore. After Stalin’s death in 1953, lyrical production experienced a new diversity, with the largely rhyming verses by J. Kross, Paul-Eerik Rummo, J. Kaplinski, Debora Vaarandi (* 1916, † 2007), Ellen Niit and Viivi Luik. In the 1960s and 70s, it was partly satirical. Prose by Enn Vetemaa, A. Valton and M. Unt are critical of Soviet society, while the historical prose by M. Traat and v. a. Kross (»Keisri hull«, 1978; German »Der Verrückte des Zaren«) achieved great importance. Likewise, the diversity in poetry continued with Doris Kareva, Ene Mihkelson (* 1944, † 2017), Mari Vallisoo (* 1950, † 2013) and Juhan Viiding (* 1948, † 1995).
After regaining national independence in 1991, literature developed by leaps and bounds in all areas and found direct contact with the other European literatures again. In the area of prose, Maimu Berg (* 1945), Tõnu Õnnepalu (* 1962), Jüri Ehlvest (* 1967) and Andrus Kivirähk (* 1970) emerged, modernist movements emerged in the lyric, represented by Sven Kivisildnik (* 1963), Karl Martin Sinijärv (* 1971) and Elo Vee (* 1974), as well as emotional-intellectual poetry by Triin Soomets (* 1969) and Kristiina Ehin (* 1977).
Pärnu, Russian Pjarnu, before 1918 Russian Pernow, German Pernau, city in Estonia, on the Pärnu Bay belonging to the Riga Bay and the mouth of the river of the same name, (2019) 39,500 residents. Visit ask4beauty for Estonia an easy and versatile holiday destination.
Health spa (lake, mud spa), theater; Fish processing, automotive suppliers, wood processing, leather and textile industries (linen production); Seaport, airport.
The old town is characterized by the remains of the city fortifications (15th century), the classicist town hall (1797; conversion and extension 1835 and 1911), the Orthodox Katharinen Church (1764–68) and the Protestant Elisabeth Church (1744–50); there are extensive parks.
Pärnu was founded around 1251 with the consecration of the cathedral church of the Ösel-Wiek diocese. From 1838 the development of the bathing and health resort began.