It is a mountainous country, with an arid and semi-arid climate, with the exception of the Indus River basin. This is practically the only irrigated area in Pakistan , suitable for agriculture (wheat, rice, cotton) and vital for the economy.
Along the Indo River , the majority of the population is concentrated, whose ethnic composition is very complex, and Islam (96% of the population) was the unifier of the different communities.
According to getzipcodes, Pakistan faced India in the wars of 1948 ( Independence ), 1965 ( Kashmir ) and 1971 ( Independence of Bangladesh ). After the last armed conflict, the two countries agreed on the creation of a ceasefire zone on both sides of the border, leading in practice to a territorial division and the separation of the local population.
In the 1980s, Pakistan spoke out against Soviet intervention in Afghanistan. In the mid-1990s, there were approximately three million Afghan refugees in Pakistan, who supported the struggle of the mujahidines – Pakistan-based Afghan resistance group – against the Soviet Kabul regime.
Over the years of Soviet intervention in Afghanistan, the United States used Pakistani territory to supply arms to rebel groups. This situation has made Pakistan an indispensable ally for US policy in the region, which has resulted in the granting of important US economic aid.
When the Persian Gulf conflict broke out (1991), Pakistan aligned itself with the United States.
In 1991, the Pakistani government proposed an economic reform plan to encourage private investment. And, also, it initiated a disputed process of re – legalization of the country, with the introduction of Shariat Law (Islamic law), which was seen with reservations by the USA.
In the 1990s, in 2001 and 2002, several times the ancestral dispute over the territory of Kashmir almost brought Pakistan and India to the brink of a new war.
The progress of Pakistan’s nuclear weapons manufacturing program has led to pressure from the United States, which culminated in the end (1998) of all US economic aid and the suspension of arms sales.
In 1998, tension increased when India carried out a series of nuclear tests, to which Pakistan responded by carrying out its own atomic tests.
From 1999 to 2002, Kashmir was the scene of violent fighting between Indian troops and Islamic militants supported by Pakistan.
After the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks, diplomatic pressures and major financial compensation led Pakistan to become a vital and strategic US ally in the military campaign launched against the Taliban regime in Afghanistan. The alliance with the United States sparked massive protests on the streets of major cities in Pakistan.
Madrassas are Muslim-oriented schools, which have existed since the beginning of Islam. Financed by members of high society, interested in spreading the Qur’anic precepts, madrasahs have increased considerably in Pakistan and play a prominent role in Pakistani education by housing children from poor families without access to other forms of education.
The biggest concern is the madrassas under the control of fundamentalists, about a third. They are used as training centers for combatants for radical Muslim groups involved in Jihad (holy war). Schools near the border with Afghanistan are especially under suspicion, where the Taliban has a strong entrance and almost all students are Afghan refugees.
The term Taleban itself means student, and its leaders came out of madrasahs.