In the middle of the first millennium (BCE), in the current territory of Tajikistan, the first sedentary centers of civilization of Central Asia and southern Siberia developed. In the upper course of the Amudarja River was the Bactrian state. In turn, the Zeravsan River basin and the Kashkadaria River valley were the nucleus of another state formation: Sogdiana. Its residents built villages, with houses of adobe and stone, along the rivers, which they used to irrigate their crops of wheat, barley and millet, as well as various fruits. Navigation was highly developed, and the cities on the caravan route linking Persia, China, and India were major trading centers.
In the 6th century (BC) these territories were annexed by the Persian Empire of the Aheménidas. In the 4th century (BC), Alexander the Great conquered Bactria and Sogdiana. Dissolved its empire in the third century (BC), the Greco-Bactrian state and the kingdom of Kushan arose, later fallen under the push of the steppe tribes of Yuechzhí and Tojar. In the 4th and 5th centuries (dne), Sogdiana was invaded by the Ephthalites, and in the 6th and 7th centuries, by the Turkic peoples of Central Asia. In the 7th century, Tajikistan came under the rule of the Arab Caliphate. After the collapse of this one, it was integrated to the kingdom of the Tahiridas and Samanidas. Between the 9th and 10th centuries the Tajik people acquired their ethnic identity.
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From the 10th to the 13th century (AD) the territory of Tajikistan was part of the empires of the Gaznevids, Karahánidas and Shas de Coresma. At the beginning of the 13th century, Tajikistan came under the Tatar-Mongol rule of Genghis Khan. In 1238, the Tajik artisan Tarabí led a popular insurrection. Between the 14th and 17th centuries the Tajiks were under the power of the Timurids and the Uzbek dynasty of the Sheibanids. From the seventeenth to the nineteenth century, the territory was divided into small fiefdoms whose leaders periodically rebelled against the khans of the kingdom of Bukhara.
In the 1860s and 1870s, the Russian Empire conquered Central Asia and the northern part of Tajikistan was annexed. The Tajik population of Kuliab, Guissar, Karateguín and Darvaz became a province of the Khanate of Bukhara (East Bukhara), dominated by Russia. The oppression of the Russian bureaucracy and the local feudal lords caused a succession of peasant rebellions between the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the most important of which was led by Vosé, in 1885.
In 1916, during the First World War, the population of Central Asia and Kazakhstan mutinied against the mobilization for rearguard work in the Russian Army. After the triumph of the Bolshevik revolution, in October 1917, Soviet power was established in Northern Tajikistan. In April 1918 it was integrated into the Turkestan Soviet Republic. However, a considerable part of the Tajiks came under the power of the emirate of Bukhara, which existed until 1921. At the beginning of 1921 the Red Army took Dushanbe, but in February it had to withdraw from East Bukhara.
On November 16, 1929, Tajikistan became a federated republic of the Soviet Union (USSR).
After the Second World War, the Soviet regime developed in Tajikistan a plan of major works, particularly an aquifer system, integrated with neighboring Uzbekistan, aimed mainly at the development of cotton cultivation. In the 1970s and 1980s, administrative failures and economic stagnation were felt in Tajikistan, one of the poorest republics in the USSR, with high unemployment among young people, the majority of the population.
Since 1985, according to youremailverifier, changes promoted by President Mikhail Gorbachev exploded long-held ethnic and religious tensions in Tajikistan. Violent incidents occurred in the capital in February 1990, leaving more than 30 deaths. The government decreed a state of emergency and maintained it during the elections of that year to integrate the new Supreme Soviet (parliament), in which the Communist Party won 90% of the available seats.
In August 1990, Parliament removed its confidence from President Majkamov, accusing him of supporting the coup plotters in Moscow, and forced him to resign. He was succeeded, as interim president of the republic, by Kadridin Aslonov.
In September 1991, Parliament approved the Declaration of Independence and the new Constitution decreed a state of emergency and prohibited the Islamic Renaissance Party (PRI), which promised a State respectful of political and religious freedom, but founded on Islam, and vindicated the application of sharia, Islamic religious, moral and legal code
The religious revival in Tajikistan was stronger than in the rest of the states of the former USSR. In the early 1980s, there were 12 mosques; ten years later, there were 128, in addition to 2,800 places of prayer, an Islamic institute and five centers of religious education. Since 1991, the local government instituted the official celebration of various Muslim holidays.